Become More Capable with Advertising
There are ten lessons in this course, each requiring about 10 hours work by the student. This course is designed as a program to first help you understand the marketing world, then to assist you in making decisions and developing skills in marketing. Emphasis is placed on profitability and efficiency!
The content the ten lessons is as outlined below:
- Analysing the Market
- Target Marketing
- Display and Display Techniques
- Advertising and Promotions Strategy
- New Product Development
- Sales Techniques - General
- Writing Advertisement
- Electronic Marketing -Telephone & Email
- Direct Mailing
- Exhibitions & Shows
- Analyse a market and understand what prompts people to choose one product or service over another.
- Determine the promotional effort on an identified target market.
- Explain how to organise and/or conduct displays.
- Plan an advertising program.
- Review a promotions campaign.
- Explain how to choose and develop marketing of new products and services.
- Explain how to organise and/or conduct promotions.
- Develop a sales approach for a product or service which has a difficult sales history.
- Plan a sales staff training program
- Develop different advertisements and different promotional leaflets or brochures
- Describe promotional and advertising techniques using electronic media, in particular the phone and the internet.
- Determine an appropriate direct mailing campaign.
- Design a show/exhibition stand
- Explain how to organise or conduct shows
What is in each Lesson?
There are 10 lessons in this course:
1. Analysing the Market
- Scope and nature of Promotions and Marketing,
- Role of Marketing, Approaches to Marketing (The Production Approach: 1820sto 1910s, The Sales Approach: 1920s to 1960s, The Marketing Approach: Stage One – 1960s to 1980s, The Marketing Approach: Stage Two – 1980s to Present),
- Goals of Marketing,
- What makes people buy (Attitude, Defining attitudes, How attitudes form, Changing attitudes)
- Practical Applications (Strengthen an existing attitude, Develop a change in attitude, Increase involvement, Focus on changing several different attitudes toward a product, Message Evaluation & Selection, Message execution, What words sell, Deciding to Buy, Rational Decisions, Heuristic Procedures),
- Decision Making Process (Recognising a Problem, Seeking Information, Evaluating Alternatives, Purchase Processes),
- Understanding Communication (Types, Methods, Channels, etc),
- Managing the Marketing Process (Organising, Analysing, Select Targets, Develop the Mix, Managing the marketing Effort),
- Market Research (Types of research, Gathering data), Managing the Marketing Plan
2. Target Marketing
- The Process of Identifying a Target Market,
- Micro marketing,
- Developing a Marketing Plan,
- Organising a Planning Process,
- Reviewing (Mission statement, Goals & Objectives),
- Establishing Market Objectives,
- Increasing Market Share,
- Expanding Product Mix,
- Broadening Geographic Range,
- Expansion through Export,
- Maximising Customer Service,
- Develop Objective Focussed Strategies,
- Increasing Market Share,
- Analysing Opportunities,
- External Influences (General economy, Government, Overseas, Demographics, Technology, Changing customer values, Competitor activity, Alternative marketing methods);
- Internal Influences (Resources, Market Share, Product characteristics, Advertising, Price, Financial capacity, Innovative potential);
- Selecting Target Markets –Market Segmentation, Mass Marketing, Concentrated or Niche Markets, Differentiated Markets;
- Physical Basis for Segmentation, Behavioural basis for Segmentation, Developing a Marketing Mix (Product, Price, Promotion, Distribution),
- Brand Names, Symbols, Logos, Packaging, Positioning and Image, Providing warranties;
- Price (Pricing Objectives, Pricing Methods, Cost-Price margin, Competition based Pricing, List and Discount Pricing)
3. Display and Display Techniques
- Channels of Distribution,
- Market Coverage (Intensive, Selective, Exclusive Distribution),
- Distribution and Coverage,
- Inventory Control,
- Determining Emphasis within Marketing Mix,
- Product Life Cycle,
- Product Strategy,
- Shop Layout, Fixtures and Fittings, Space Available, Displaying Products for Sale,
- What Sells Best,
- Spacing, Quantity Displayed,
- Merchandising Suggestions, Stock Control,
- Merchandising Program,
- Signs, Signposting.
4. Advertising and Promotions Strategy
- Promotional Element,
- Public Relations,
- Forms of Advertising,
- Sales Promotion,
- Personal Selling Method,
- Promotion Principles,
- Scope of PR,
- Steps in Designing a PR Strategy (Set Advertising Objectives, Decide Advertising Budget, Decide Advertising Message, Decide Media to Use, Evaluate Advertising Effectiveness).
5. New Product Development
- Product Line Decisions,
- New Products,
- Tracking Trends,
- Knowing Your Customers,
- Cost-Benefit Analysis,
- Financial Forecasting,
- Project Revenues and Costs,
- Expenditure Breakdown,
- Revenue Breakdown.
6. Sales Techniques
- Promotion and Sales,
- Steps in the Sales Order,
- Understanding Persuasion,
- Materials of Persuasion (Know the Audience, Subject and Yourself, Influencing Opponents, Influencing Neutrals, Handling Criticism, Logical Persuasion);
- Sales Staff Training, Theory of Helping, Strategies (Traditional Approach, Task Approach), Common Strategies for Staff Training and Teaching
7. Writing Advertisement
- Purpose of Advertising,
- Writing an Effective Advertisement,
- Structure of an Ad,
- Importance of Colour and Size,
- Advertisement Creation (Develop Product Awareness, Provide Information, Develop a Desire, Develop Conviction, Differentiate Brand, Make a Decision),
- The Advertising Message, Message Generation, Combining Rewards and Experiences to design a message, Delivering the Message,
- Advertisement Creation Checklist,
- Verification and Proofing
8. Electronic Marketing -Telephone & Email
- Telephone Manner,
- Managing an Unmanned Phone,
- Internet Promotions ( Larger audience, Lower Conversion Factor, Different Etiquette, Different Cost Structures, etc),
- Ways of Using Web, Web sites,
- Site Construction, Site Use,
9. Direct Mailing
- Types of Direct Mailing (The Direct, The Informative. The Reminder, The Utility);
10. Exhibitions & Shows
- Types of Exhibitions,
- Judging it’s Value,
- What can go Wrong,
- Catering for People Overload,
- Measuring Success,
- Organising an Event,
- Planning a Display
EXAMPLES OF TASKS YOU MAY BE ASKED TO UNDERTAKE
- Go shopping (your routine weekly shopping if you like). Take notice of how different sales staff communicate with you. Note the techniques they use (verbal & non verbal), and how effective they are. Note the type of impression they seem to be creating. When you come home, write down notes on your observations.
- Look through newspapers or magazines at advertisements or articles which discuss products offered for sale and find what you consider to be good examples of each of the following types of communication:
Explain why you think these are good examples?
- Verbal communication
- Non verbal communication
- Combination of verbal & non verbal communication together
- Select a product or service which you would like to improve the marketing of. This might be something you are dealing with in your own business or a business you work for; or it might be something you think has potential -an idea you would like to develop into a business OR something another business is dealing with, but not handling as well as what you think they should be.
- Develop an advertising campaign for this product or service.
- You will need to select a method for determining an advertising budget, and then set that budget.
- You will then need to find out the costs of advertising in different places.
- You will then need to write advertisements for these various places. The campaign should be well targeted. NB: We do not expect you to present a highly detailed and involved campaign. This could take longer than the whole course! Put about 10 hours of work into this project, at the most, and then you will present what you have been able to achieve in that time. (You need to not only develop the ability to put a campaign together... but you need to be able to put it together within a reasonable time frame).
IMPROVING VISIBILITY IS KEY TO SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS
(The following notes are an extract from a book by academic staff from this school. See our books at www.acsbookshop.com)
There is an old rule in marketing that still applies. Be seen in three places. If potential customers see your name in three places, they are more likely for that information to go into their memory. So hopefully they are more likely to remember when want your services. For example, you see a new car – XYZ 1 is released three times. A few weeks later you are thinking about buying a new car and think about XYZ 1
I doubt there are many people who have not heard of the internet or websites today. But websites are displayed on the internet. Most businesses have their own website today, but that is not to say all do. Some businesses may not find a website a useful tool. Businesses can use websites in a variety of ways -
- Own Website – They may have their own website, which advertises their products or services. They may also sell their goods or services online.
- Listing sites – where people can view many professionals in the same area. For example, a listing site of all plumbers in the London area of the UK. Some listing sites are free, others require payments for advertising.
- Review websites – For example, there are lots of websites now that offer reviews on hotels.
Social media is a rapidly changing environment, with many new social media coming out almost weekly, so it is important to keep up to date on the important ones. Social media are a way for people to communicate with others online. They may communicate with their own close friends or people throughout the world. Different social media work in different ways. There are websites where people can put up their photos and show others. There are other sites where people may share things about themselves to the public or friends. Firms may use these forms of social media to inform their potential clients. For example, a knitting shop may put messages on social media about a new colour of wool or a new knitting machine, or a jumper that a pleased customer has made, or a new knitting pattern. This can be an easy and quick way to keep potential customers interested in their products.
It is important to consider the time you have available for social media. Some organisations employ people who will spend their whole working day adding postings and blogs to social media. They may use many different forms of social media. Other organisations may not have the same time, so it is then important to focus on the social media that can reach the most potential clients. This will require market research. It is no good maintaining a high presence on Social Media A if people looking for your services tend to go to Social Media B.
Print media includes books, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, handbooks, brochures, leaflets etc. At one time, most advertising occurred in print media or on bill boards, but with the advent of radio, then television and now the internet, the opportunities for advertising have increased. Whether print media is a suitable area for a business to advertise in will really depend on the business and who they are target marketing. Going back to the ecologically friendly terrycloth nappies, this business may find it cost effective to advertise in green parenting magazines.
Broadcast media includes mainly television and radio. This is interlinked with the internet now as many TV and radio stations offer some programmes online, so there is also an online presence. Television and radio advertising can be very expensive, but with so many channels and stations now available, it has become cheaper. Again, it is important to consider if this is cost effective. An expensive advert on a prime time popular TV programme or a cheaper advert at 2am in the morning on a channel with a very small audience, which would work best for the business will be determined by the business themselves.
Signs, Billboards, Posters & Shop fronts
We still see billboards and signs. For example, in the UK, it is possible to sponsor flowers in the middle of traffic islands, so people driving around the island will see your sponsorship sign. They can be a way to draw the attention of potential customers. Shop fronts can also be effective. Many book stores will have displays of new books and popular books in their windows, which draw the attention of potential customers. This can work. If a customer is walking past the shop and notices the new book, they may go in and buy.
Shows, Exhibitions, Events, Conferences
There are many conferences and shows available. They can be expensive, so it is important to determine which would be the most effective use of your time and finances. Again, this requires market research in your field of business. But saying that, they can be a very effective way for businesses to draw attention to their services. For example, an agricultural college may attend an agricultural fair as a way to attract potential students on their courses.
Some firms and businesses will sponsor sporting events, TV programmes, books, traffic islands, flower shows, village fetes, conferences and so on. Again, these can be costly, so this should be undertaken with great market research.
Direct Mail, Letterbox dropping, Visiting homes or Workplaces
Leaflets and direct mailings can still work. We still get leaflets in the letterbox almost daily. This can be effective if you attract the attention of the householder. Linked to this, there can also be direct emailing, where we send information regarding services and goods advertising that can be sent direct to potential customers.
Cold calling or arranged calls can market a product very effectively, but this should be used carefully as cold calling has developed a very negative reputation over recent years. It can be effective. BUT whilst we want people to hear/see our business in three places, we do not want these to be negative views.
Word of mouth or referral
This is obviously very effective. If someone recommends your business to another person, this can be a powerful way of marketing your products.
Blogs, eZines, eBooks
Blogs, eZines (electronic magazines) and eBooks (electronic books) are other ways to market to potential customers. A blog is an online story about a person or business. Blogs can appear on specialist blog websites or on a business’s own website. A blog can draw attention to a business. For example, a veterinary surgery may write a blog about animal health care, such as how to groom dogs, cutting guinea pigs’ claws, brushing dogs’ teeth etc. This draws attention to the vets. If a person goes online to find out how to cut their guinea pig’s claws, they may come across the blog and then look at the vets that wrote the blog. Then the vets are in their mind and they become a potential client. Some people may write blogs about themselves. For example, a travelling salesman may write about the places he visits and who he sees (maintaining confidentiality of course) as a way to draw attention to what he does.
EZines are similar. An eZine is an electronic magazine. A business may product a magazine online every week/month/year to inform new customers and potential customers about what they are doing, new products and so on. An eZine can be simple and easily produced or a highly produced marketing tool.
eBooks move beyond eZines. A person or people in a business who may be a specialist in their field may produce eBooks as a way to advertise their business. For example, the veterinary surgery may write an eBook about Caring for Hamsters. They eBook would also contain information on the veterinary surgery and who wrote the book. The eBook can also be sold to potential customers.
Networking involves developing and nurturing contact with a group of people or organisations who may lead directly or indirectly to marketing opportunities.
In the past, networking may have been achieved by joining a group such as a Rotary Club, a professional association, or a trade consortium. It would have involved making yourself visible amongst peers by getting things you write published, or by physically talking to and being heard by people.
Modern business is more starved for time than in the past; and every minute needs to be as productive as possible. Time can be lost travelling to and from meetings, or waiting for an opportunity to talk about your goods or services. Modern marketing is about finding faster ways of reaching more people, building more personal relationships and raising awareness about more things in a shorter period of time; by using tools such as web sites, apps and social media.
“I personally attend very few meetings but I do an awful lot of networking through email, phone, post and social media. The meetings are good to make some contacts; but after that, they are only valuable if those contacts are followed up on. I often find trade shows are better than seminars in that they can make a lot of contacts in a short period.
For me, it is all about, how many of the "right" people can you touch base with, per unit of time? Repeated contacts are more valuable.... you are better to have a brief email or facebook contact every month with someone rather than a long talk face to face once every 2 years without anything in between”
by John Mason,
Academic Writer and Course Writer and Developer
What then is the Role of Marketing?
Marketing today places a strong emphasis on viewing the business through the customer’s eyes or customer-oriented marketing. A market-focused business will want to create products that customers want to buy. The business needs to see itself as a customer-satisfying process rather than a production process. It also needs to be aware of what is happening in the market and market trends.
In developing a new product, to achieve financial goals and make a profit, the product would need to generate sales and this would require the development of a business plan.
To achieve the goal of profit, the business plan and specifically the marketing plan should be the focus of all short-term planning for three reasons:
1. The marketing plan outlines the strategies to be used to bring the buyer and seller together. The business needs to be able to identify:
- where the market is
- who will buy the product
- why they will buy the product
2. The core of marketing is satisfying existing customer wants – or analysing the market - which should lead to repeat sales.
3. Marketing is the revenue-generating activity of any business. Nothing is achieved until a sale is made.
A business, therefore, must determine what the customer wants, how the market is selling now, and develop a product and marketing plan to satisfy these wants.
In order to create a marketing strategy, data needs to be collected and analysed on markets, consumers and customers. This information then needs to be used to guide business decisions as to which products should be produced and the best methods to do this.
So whichever approach to marketing is adopted, whether it is production, product, sales or marketing orientated, the fact is marketing will still deal with customers more than any other section of a business. This means that marketing will acquire a greater understanding of the needs of potential and existing customers, which will have an important role in decision making across the whole business.
Internal marketing audits will raise awareness within the business of any strengths and weaknesses. Whilst marketing techniques such as SWOT (Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analyses will be used to make the business look outside its own environment and identify opportunities and threats in the external environment. In today’s market it is also important to note and look at the internal structure of the business as well.
The role of marketing requires that plans are made, targets set and reviews of performance against the targets made regularly. Basically, the role of marketing is to influence everything that a business does, so it ensures it meets the needs and wants of customers in a way that is profitable to the business. The strength of the influence of the marketing department will depend on the individuals involved and the marketing approach used by the business. The marketing section and department also need to analyse the data and information to make sure that the business is heading in the right direction.