Engineering II (Engineering Applications) BSC205

Learn Ways to Use Modern Engineering to Improve Quality and Efficiency

Develop an understanding of machinery and general engineering, then build the skills you need to apply appropriate and innovative engineering solutions, and to improve efficiency and productivity in agricultural and horticultural situations. In this course, you'll look at surveying, reconstruction, and ways you can improve your efficiency and grow more sustainable. An excellent complement to Engineering I.

Course Duration: 100 hours

Course Structure

There are 9 lessons in this course:

  1. Surveying
    • Linear surveying
    • Triangulation
    • Contouring
    • Traversing
    • Grid systems
    • Levelling terms
    • Levels
    • Levelling procedure
  2. Earthworks
    • Construction machines and techniques
    • Cultivation Machinery
    • Calculating earth to be moved
    • Moving existing earth
    • Importing soil
    • Construction procedure for a playing field
    • Soil degradation
    • Erosion
    • Soil Acidification
    • Compaction
    • Chemical Residues
    • Importing soils
  3. Water Management
    • Irrigation systems
    • Nursery Irrigation Equipment
    • Pumps
    • Pumping Mechanisms
    • Filters and other treatments
    • Scheduling irrigation
    • Maintenance of watering systems
  4. Environmental Control
    • Effects of carbon dioxide
    • Atmosphere control
    • Greenhouses and shade houses for a home garden
    • Greenhouses
  5. Chemical applications
    • Applying herbicides and pesticides
    • Sprayers
    • Calibration
    • Sprayer maintenance
    • Safe chemical use
    • Choosing the correct chemicals to use
    • Principles underpinning farm chemical use
    • Material Safety Data Sheet
    • Safe chemical storage
    • Optimal conditions for safe chemical use
    • Environmental contamination
    • Pesticide application records
    • Protecting outdoor structures
  6. Fencing
    • Fencing materials terminology
    • Types of fences
    • End strainer assemblies
    • Barriers and walls
    • Ways to use fences
    • Types of timber fence
    • Fencing a house
    • Pool fencing
    • Gateways and gates
    • Walls
    • Retainer walls
    • Ways to use walls
    • Trellises
    • Timber
  7. Mechanisation
    • Farm machinery
    • Vehicles
    • Tractors
    • Harvesters
    • Mowers
    • Ride-on mowers
    • Hedge trimming
    • Using trimmers
    • Chain saws
    • Mulching machines
    • Cultivators
    • Milking machines
    • Tree spades
    • Soil mixing equipment
    • Conveyor belts
    • Potting machines
    • Seeding machines
    • Planters and drills
  8. Engineering efficiency
    • Cost
    • Quality of product
    • Replacement parts and servicing
  9. Developing engineering solutions
    • Developing engineering solutions
    • Handling equipment
    • Trays, boxes, pellets
    • Trolleys and wheelbarrows
    • Trailers
    • Fork lifts
    • Fork lift in action
    • Tractor loaders
    • Continuous conveying systems

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Finding Better Ways to Work

Engineering is changing our world. Like it or not, modern engineered technologies are changing the way work is being done, all around the world. Whether it is construction equipment, computer systems or robotics, jobs for real people are shrinking, as engineering solutions are found to enable one machine to carry out the work of many people.

Engineering solutions allow us to do more with less resources; and most importantly, at lower costs. This is in one respect increasing wealth for those using technology, but at the same time, displacing others from jobs they have held for a long time.

Whether you work in agriculture, horticulture, construction, manufacturing, trade, or anywhere else, an understanding of engineering derived from this course can help you to see possibilities in the workplace which previously may have escaped your attention.

Applications to Land Management

This course is particularly relevant to industries that apply engineering to managing the land, from agriculture and horticulture to construction and conservation. Managing the land often involves digging, shaping and moving soil. Such work must start with a full understanding of the original site (e.g. topography, nature of soil, drainage characteristics).

An Introduction to Surveying

Surveying an area of land involves determining gradients, boundaries, and location and size of major features on a site, in order to produce an plan which accurately depicts these and other such characteristics of that site.

There are many different ways of surveying a site, including:

  • Linear surveying
  • Triangulation
  • Contouring
  • Traversing
  • Grid systems

Linear Surveying

Linear surveying is one of the most basic and as such, simplest forms of surveying. It is concerned merely with the measurement of length, i.e. the distance from point A to point B. The area to be surveyed is divided into a series of triangles whose sides rather than angles are measured. With this information at hand the principle of triangulation is applied and a plan can then be drawn.


A simple, yet accurate, way to map is by triangulation, described below:

First, establish an initial base line. It might be the distance between two survey pegs marking one of the boundaries, or between two trees; the only requirements are that the base line be long, and marked at the ends by permanent fixtures.

To fix the position of a feature near the base line (such as a tree), measure from two points on the base line to the tree. The two dimension lines to the tree should meet an approximate right angle (excessively acute or obtuse intersections mean loss of accuracy. Besides accurately fixing the position of the tree, you now have a new base line from which to plot other features.

Finally, to plot the positions of the features on the base plan, use a sharp pencil compass to draw arcs from the two ends of the base lines, with radii corresponding to the measured distances. For small sites, a scale of 10 mm to 1 m is appropriate.

Determining Slope

Before you design your garden in detail, you should know the various levels and slopes with which you are dealing. The most useful way of showing levels on a plan is by contours. A contour is a line comparable with the edge of a pond, because it follows a truly horizontal course. If you picture your land with successive tidemarks each 30 cm higher than the last, you have a contour map with a vertical interval of 30 cm between contours.


Direct contouring is accomplished by sighting through a hand level (which will give an accurate, horizontal line of sight) and moving a boning rod about the site to find places (at various distances from the hand level) where the top of the boning rod corresponds with the line of sight. These positions are pegged. A line joining the pegs is then a truly level line a contour. The operation requires two people, one sighting through the hand level and the other holding the boning rod in various positions.

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Prices in Australian Dollars

PlanAust. PriceOverseas Price
A 1 x $822.80  1 x $748.00
B 2 x $438.90  2 x $399.00

Note: Australian prices include GST. 
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