Learn about, Understand and Manage Animal Feeding
Evaluate different animal foods and food products
Design production rations
Learn the composition of a range of feeds, including pasture, fodder crops, grasses, cereals, seed, and other edible plants. This course also explains the role of proteins, vitamins and minerals in animal diets. It equips you with the skills required to evaluate feeding and select appropriate feeds - for digestibility and nutritional content - applicable to real life farming situations.
1. INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FOODS
2. FOOD COMPONENTS - CARBOHYDRATES AND FATS
- Terms and Definitions
- Groups of Foods
- Other Terms That Are Used
- Food Processing Terms
3. FOOD COMPONENTS - PROTEINS, MINERALS, AND TRACE ELEMENTS
- Carbohydrates as a Source Of Energy
- Fats and Oils
- Adipose Tissue Deposits in Animals
- Fat Deposits in Different Animals
4. EVALUATING FOODS AND DIGESTIBILITY
- Composition of Proteins
- The Build Up Of Proteins
- Biological Value of Protein
- Protein Content of Foods
- The Function of Protein
- Feeding Urea to Ruminants
- Major Minerals
- Trace Elements
5. CLASSIFYING FOODS PART A
- Analysis of Feed Stuffs
- Calculating Digestibility
- Protein Value
- Energy Value
- Nutrient Value of Some Common Foods
6. CLASSIFYING FOODS PART B
- Cereals and Cereal By-Products
- Brewing By-Products
- Grasses, Legumes and Succulents
- Other Succulent Foods
- Roughage, Hay, Silage and Dried Grass
7. CLASSIFYING FOODS PART C
- Oil and Legume Seeds
- Oil Seeds and Their Products
- Legume Seeds
8. CALCULATING RATIONS PART A
- Fodder Trees and Animal Products
- Fodder Trees and Shrubs
- Animal Products
9. CALCULATING RATIONS PART B
- The Object of Rationing
- Nutritional Requirements of the Animal
- Calculating a Maintenance Ration
- Cattle at Pasture
- Working Out Rations for a Herd
10. CALCULATING RATIONS PART C
- Nutrient Requirements for a Dairy Cow
- Working Out the Total Requirements
- Feeding a Ration to Meet Nutrient Needs
- The Dairy Ration
- Ready Mix Feeds
- Using Protein Contents
- A Summary of Rationing
- Further Considerations in Rationing
- Describe the range of livestock feeds and feeding methods available for animal production, using accepted industry terminology.
- Explain the role of energy foods, including the sources and functions of those foods, in animal diets.
- Explain the function of the major nutritional groups, including proteins, vitamins, minerals and trace elements in animal diets.
- Explain the on-farm methods used to evaluate feeding, including selection of feeds and feed digestibility.
- Evaluate the dietary value of pastures, including grasses, cereals, and other edible plants, and their by-products for animal feeds.
- Explain the dietary value of seeds, including oil seeds, legume seeds and their by-products as food sources for animals.
- Evaluate the dietary value of fodder plants, including trees and shrubs and their by-products, as a food source in animal production.
- Determine suitable feed rations for a farm animal maintenance program.
- Analyse the method(s) to determine suitable feed rations in a farm animal production program.
- Evaluate the dietary value of protein in an animal production program.
- Explain the factors affecting the composition of feed rations in animal production.
DURATION: 100 hours
How Much Do You Understand about Protein?
Proteins are the chemical foundation of all living matter; in other words, of all life. Proteins, together with water, are the material from which plant and animal protoplasm is made. Furthermore, the enzymes, chromosomes, digestive juices and many other important chemicals in animals and plants are protein or protein-like substances.
Proteins are made up of atoms of:
Because proteins are such large, complicated molecules, they are built up, from other molecules called Amino Acids. Amino acids also contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These are the building blocks of proteins in the same way that a wall is built up of bricks. Amino acids are chemical substances which are crystalline, usually soluble in water and have a very complicated chemical structure.
A typical food protein is built up from twenty-two amino acids although this figure can vary from twenty to twenty five. The question you might ask is "where do amino acids come from?". Plants take up a simple chemical like ammonium nitrate and build this up, firstly, into very complex amino acids and, finally, into proteins. Plants essentially manufacture proteins.
Generally animals can not do this; with the exception of ruminants fed urea (this is discussed in the course). In all other cases, animals obtain proteins by eating plants or other animals.
When amino acids are unused by animals they are broken down and excreted.
They cannot be stored in the way fat can be stored.
BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PROTEIN
Some of the amino acids are called "Essential Amino Acids" because they are vital to the maintenance and production of the body. Every animal species needs a different mix of essential amino acids.
Example - pigs need the following:
Of these, the most important in pig nutrition is Lysine. There is a high proportion of this amino acid in the protein of white fish meal and soybean meal. In fact, Lysine is so important in pig nutrition that plant breeders are trying to produce varieties of maize and barley with a high Lysine percentage in their protein.
Food proteins that contain all the essential amino acids are said to have a high biological value. Such foods are mainly animal proteins such as milk, eggs, meat and fish. Food proteins that contain only a few of the essential amino acids are said to have low biological value. These are essentially the vegetable proteins (such as cereals and nuts). Generally, vegetable proteins will be high in some of the essential amino acids, but lacking in others.
The biological value of vegetable protein can be increased by feeding combinations of vegetable proteins that complement each other. For example, if grains and beans are fed together, they will supply all the essential amino acids so that their combined biological value is comparable to an animal protein such as meat. Another solution is to increase the biological value of vegetable protein by feeding it with an animal protein. For example, it is common to feed pigs on cereal meal and skimmed milk - the skim milk provides animal protein which boosts the biological value of the cereal meal. The amino acid requirements of pigs, sheep, cattle and poultry are all different. The requirements also very according to whether the animal is growing, reproducing, giving milk or eggs, etc. Therefore the biological value of the protein is specific to the animal which eats it.
You can see from this, there is a lot to learn about protein alone; if you are to properly manage the feeding of animals.
- With this course you will lay the foundation for understanding animal feed and nutrition.
- It is a substantial study program; and has the potential to make a real difference to your animal husbandry skills.
- To be the best you can though, will take ongoing learning though.
THIS IS THE STARTING POINT FOR ANYONE SERIOUS ABOUT ANIMAL FEED AND NUTRITION.
Who Can Benefit From this Course?
- Livestock breeders
- Feed Suppliers
- Animal Food and Supplement Manufacturers
- Anyone else caring for animals